Quetta, the capital of Balochistan, is a district and a city. In the north of Quetta district, Pishin district, in the south, Kalat district, and Chaghi district are the incidents. To its east is Sibi District and to its west is Afghanistan. Most of the area of Quetta district is mountainous.
Mount Brohi Central and its branches spread far and wide. Among them, Mount Chaltan, Mount Mordar, Mount Zaun, etc. are very famous. There is only one tehsil in Quetta district, Quetta tehsil. It is 5500 feet high from the sea level with 2 million population and the area is 1024 square miles.
The city of Quetta is very old. Before the arrival of the Arabs in Balochistan, a small settlement was settled in the deep green valley of the four mountains of Balochistan, Mount Mordar, Mount Zarghoon, Mount Takatu, and Mount Chilton. The inhabitants of this settlement, consisting of a few mud houses, were herdsmen of the area.
Who had made this valley their own habitat on the basis of the abundance of water and had taken a life of peace by getting rid of the nomadic. This town became famous as Shaal. Gradually its population has increased and it has become a regular village.
The town had a natural lake about eight miles northeast and flower orchards about 6 miles on its right. The area of these gardens increased and the production of fruits increased, Shaal took the form of a flower market.
It began to flourish. Then along with the increase in the prosperity of the people, they also became permanent houses. Some unpaved roads, paved streets, and a half road gave it the status of a major occupation, and its name was also developed to Shalkot.
The British had also administratively enforced the natural division of Balochistan for their colonial purposes. The area from the South Waziristan border to Darun Bolan was the territory of my Pashto-speaking tribes. He established a normal system in the area and renamed it as British Balochistan.
And four Baloch states in the south were retained and rulers were appointed. The four states of Kalat, Khalan, Lasbela, and Makran had separate rulers. Along with this, by strengthening the tribal system of the Balochs, the worth of the states was divided into two areas, namely, Sarawan Nasheebi, i.e Jhalawan, and two separate chiefs were appointed.
The chiefs of different tribes were also appointed. All the chiefs of the lowland area were subordinate to the chief of the lowland area and the same was the case in the upper area.
The Khan of Kalat had the status of Beglar Begi, ruler and chief of chiefs. All these Khans and Nawabs and all the Baloch were responsible for maintaining order and discipline in accordance with the traditions and in return they received stipends from the British Government.
It was this system that strengthened the tribal and chieftaincy system in the Baloch region of Balochistan, the Balochistan States Union, which eventually took root in the social and tribal life of the region and later led to serious problems, political strife, and armed conflict.
After the abolition of the One Unit of West Pakistan in 1907, the provinces were restored and Balochistan also got a provincial status for the first time and the province of Quetta became the capital. The old name of this city Shaal or Shalkot is now disappearing from the minds of most people. Located at the foot of Mount Mardar, Ali Mulla Kala is called “Shaal Dara” meaning the door of the shaal.
The city, which had been inhabited for centuries, was badly damaged in the 1935 earthquake. Even then, Texas had a population of more than 100,000. Thousands were killed in the quake, and most of the two- and three-story buildings were reduced to rubble.
The present city was settled on the ruins of this old city. After the earthquake, it became customary to build mud, wooden, and tin houses here. These houses, called “Seven Types”, now exist in large numbers. However, according to modern architecture, the construction of earthquake-proof places and buildings has been going on for many years, but according to municipal rules, all citizens are still not allowed to build a solid house more than two stories high and more than 26 feet high.
Apart from the Municipal Committee building in old Quetta, not a single building of public importance was constructed. The first Provincial Assembly was established in the old building of the municipality.
The largest of the state-of-the-art high-rise buildings in New Quetta is the Television Center. The other important building is the State Bank of Pakistan. The building of the literary organization “Qalam Qabila” is built on an acre of land and the building of the Pakistan Children’s Academy is built on an area of about five thousand square yards.
Both buildings are the result of the personal efforts of Begum Saqiba Rahimuddin Khan, wife of former Balochistan Governor-General Rahimuddin Khan.
Our vast University of Balochistan was built in different stages. This floor was originally a college building. The Manzil College project was abandoned and the building was handed over to Balochistan University.
New blocks were built in different stages. Other notable buildings include the PIA Regional Office, Bolan Medical College Geological Survey of Pakistan Office, International Airport, Police Headquarters, Balochistan Public Library, Governor House, and Secretariat.
There is also a large multi-story modern hotel under the auspices of Prince Karim Aga Khan. The building of Staff College Quetta, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering is a landmark in the Armed Forces related institutions in the cantonment area.
Staff College Quetta is the second-largest military training institution in the world after Sandhurst. Government College Seriab, Science College, Badal Khan Sanatorium, Fatima Jinnah Sanatorium are also notable.